Almost all cervical cancer is associated with HPV, 50% of oral cancer, 65% of vaginal cancer, 35% of penile cancer, 95% of anal cancer and about 60% of oral pharyngeal cancer which is the cancer responsible for the tongue and the tonsils. HPV is also responsible for disfiguring warts in those area as well. There is no way to find out who will go on to develop cancer or other problems such as warts after getting infection with hpv.

The work to create hpv vaccines was initiating in mid 1980’s the vaccine was developed by help of different institution such as Georgetown university, university of Rochester, in NIH as follow:

HPV Structure:
Human papilloma virus has an outer shell  protein capsule called L1 and minor protein capsule called L2.  L1 causes major immune response and antibody production in human body. Inside the virus there is HPV DNA. 

Similar structure artificially produced by lab, but this structure which resembles the human papilloma virus does not have any DNA. It is an empty shell that resembles the virus created by protein in the lab which could mimic the virus and cause an immune response in the human body.

How they Make Vaccine Particle (The Fake HPV Virus)
In the lab L1 protein particle clusters together to create the empty shell  which mimics and  resembles the real virus. Each HPV virus has its own shape so we need different shapes for different  type of HPVs.

Quadrivalent  vaccines cover four different hpv 6,11,16 and 18. 6 and 11 cause warts, 16 and 18 cause cancer.

How HPV Vaccine Works
Vaccine particles will be injected to the muscle.
This fake empty virus inside the body gets recognized by a variety of cells in immune system such as antigen processing  cells (APC). 

It works like a messenger take the protein particle of the vaccine and travels through the lymphatic system then it showed them to the T cells and B cells so they find out how to fight against this enemy then the plasma cells which is part of our immune system process the vaccines particle and create antibody against different type of hpv targeted by vaccine.

we also create memory cells to remember the infection for the future some of these antibodies capable of neutralizing hpv leaving the lymph node and travel throughout the bloodstream till they reach the target.

Antibody travel to basal cells intercept  bind and neutralize invading virus and also mark this viruses so our macrophages which are basically a vaccum cleaner in our immune system eat and digest the hpv right on the spot. Some of these neutralizing antibody get secreted in body fluid so it reaches hpv on the surface to prevent hpv infection to begin with.

quadrivalent hpv vaccine will be given in three dosages 0, 2 months and 6 months, the amount of antibody declined by 24 months but afterward  it remains steady. in a follow up study the gardasil vaccine has demonstrated memory  to at least 5 years it is interesting to know that after immunization with hpv vaccine established by memory B cell so if you get an encounter with hpv in the future a strong immune response cause high volume of antibody productions against new infection after vaccination. As HPV vaccine is relatively new then we need more years to come to evaluate the duration of the immunity.

Type of HPV Vaccine :

Gardisil made by Merck introduced in 2006 covers 4 different HPV Types 6, 11, 16, and 18. First 2 types are responsible for majority of genital warts and last 2 are responsible for cervical cancer. In other words, type 6 and 11 are low risk and 16 and 18 are high risk HPV. The main components of the vaccine are purified inactive proteins from aforementioned HPV.

The vaccine will not infect you, but will boost your immunity to fight against the virus. Vaccine are given in series of 3 shots on day 0, 2 months and 6 months. We have this vaccine available in our medical center for administration.

Cervarix is made by Glaxo Smith received FDA approval in 2009. It will cover Type 16 and 18. We usually prefer Gardisil for our patients as our practice focus on Genital warts and Gardisil will cover that, However, Cervarix remain as approved Vaccine for prevention of cervical cancer please consult with your physician to choose which one is right for you.




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